Citing Sources in the Main Body of Your Story

Books, chapters in edited volumes, journal articles, newspaper articles, and even websites, typically have one or more authors. They also have publication dates, specifically, a year of publication. Unless it is a website, they also have numbered pages. In the main body of your essay, you refer to a source in your list of References (bibliography) in the following manner:

(Smith 1992: 58).

You have seen this format numerous times in your assigned course readings and I am expecting that you will be very familiar with this by now.

To refer to a source within the body of an essay, you would insert the following at the end of a sentence, or where it is most appropriate before the end of a sentence—for example:

The observation that traditions in this community have been subjected to degrees of politicization is relatively commonplace (Smith 1992: 58).

[What this does is to tell me that Smith, whose work was published in 1992, states on page 58 of that publication that these observations have now become commonplace. Note that the period comes after the citation.] 

Listing Sources Cited in Your References Section

At the end of your essay, you must have a section titled References or Bibliography—where you only list items that you have actually used for writing the essay, and which have been cited in your essay.

Please use the following as a guideline for formatting individual entries in your References section:

  • Here is how a book would be listed: Smith, Peter. (1989).
    The Personal Memoirs of Peter Smith. New York: Great Unknown Press. 
  • A chapter by one author in a volume edited by someone else:
    Smith, Peter. (1992). “In Defense of the Indefensible.” In John A. Gow (Ed.), Treatises in Political Science, 55-75. London: Routledge. 
    [the chapter title is in quotation marks, the book title is in italics, and the pages covered by the chapter are provided after the title, after a comma.] 
  • An article in a journal:
    Smith, Peter. (1995). “Review of Political Anthropology.” American Anthropologist, 58(2): 39-48.
    [the title is in quotation marks; the word “IN” does not precede the journal’s name, which is in italics; the volume number is 58, the issue number is 2—the issue number is always inside brackets and there is no space between 58 and (2). To indicate the pages taken up by the article in that issue, insert a colon, and then the page range.]